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He was an insatiable adopter and adapter, an incomparable prestidigitator with the thoughts of the forerunners.

By bending to their service all the faculties of a powerful mind, by inextinguishable wit, and by every artifice of argument, he carried their thoughts as far as they would reach—so far beyond their sources that they came to us with the vitality of the newly created.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bernard Shaw disambiguation. Irish playwright, critic and polemicist, influential in Western theatre.

Shaw in , by Alvin Langdon Coburn. Playwright critic polemicist political activist. Charlotte Payne-Townshend. We desire to record that we saw nowhere evidence of economic slavery, privation, unemployment and cynical despair of betterment.

Everywhere we saw [a] hopeful and enthusiastic working-class The loss of his wife was more profoundly felt than he had ever imagined any loss could be: for he prided himself on a stoical fortitude in all loss and misfortune.

See also: List of works by George Bernard Shaw. Play media. Shaw was a poseur and a puritan; he was similarly a bourgeois and an antibourgeois writer, working for Hearst and posterity; his didacticism is entertaining and his pranks are purposeful; he supports socialism and is tempted by fascism.

Shaw, arguably the most important English-language playwright after Shakespeare, produced an immense oeuvre , of which at least half a dozen plays remain part of the world repertoire.

Academically unfashionable, of limited influence even in areas such as Irish drama and British political theatre where influence might be expected, Shaw's unique and unmistakable plays keep escaping from the safely dated category of period piece to which they have often been consigned.

Stewart, professor of music at Trinity College , denounced him as a charlatan, and succeeded in driving him out.

He was also a teetotaller and non-smoker, and was known for his habitual costume of unfashionable woollen clothes, made for him by Jaeger.

Stone of Chicago. Sachs, Bernard Stern and Sally Peters, believe Shaw was a repressed homosexual, and that after Jenny Patterson all his relationships with women, including his marriage, were platonic.

Shaw chose it as his pen name because he thought it seemed dashing: "it sounded like a foreign title and nobody knew what a corno di bassetto was".

Only later did he hear one played, after which he declared it "a wretched instrument [of] peculiar watery melancholy. The devil himself could not make a basset horn sparkle".

He insisted that it was Gilbert who was heartless, while he himself was constructive. His plays would thus have no place in the Irish theatre movement".

Kavanagh added, "an important part of Shaw's plays was political argument, and Yeats detested this quality in dramatic writing.

The former British prime minister David Lloyd George described the Führer in as "unquestionably a great leader". Lipscomb , who had also worked on adapting Shaw's text.

Barrie , who accepted it. Shaw later said he would have refused it if offered, just as he refused the offer of a knighthood. Tree and then with film producers, to prevent it being returned to stock with a 'happy' ending.

This was a battle Shaw was to lose posthumously when the sugar-coated musical comedy adaptation, Lerner and Loewe's My Fair Lady , went on to make more money for the Shaw estate than all his plays put together.

Here we reach a colon; and a pointed pository phrase, in which the accent falls decisively on the relative pronoun, brings us to the first full stop.

Matthews credits Shaw with a successful campaign against the two-hundred-year-old tradition of editing Shakespeare into "acting versions", often designed to give star actors greater prominence, to the detriment of the play as a whole.

Although death duties severely reduced the residuary sum, royalties from My Fair Lady later boosted the income of the estate by several million pounds.

Verein SwissEduc. Broadview Press. Adams, Elsie Bonita Bernard Shaw and the Aesthetes. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. The Rise of the Labour Party — Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge.

The Black and Tans. What is Theatre? New York: Atheneum. In Christopher Innes ed. The Making of British Socialism. Dictionary to the Plays and Novels of Bernard Shaw.

New York: Haskell House. Burton, Alan; Steve Chibnall Historical Dictionary of British Cinema. London: Scarecrow Press.

Carr, Pat Bernard Shaw. New York: Ungar. Bernard Shaw's Irish Outlook. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Growing up into Revolution. London and New York: Longmans, Green. The Story of Fabian Socialism. London: Heinemann. Bernard Shaw: "Mrs Warren's Profession".

Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press. Old Men Forget. London: Rupert Hart-Davis. Present Indicative — Autobiography to London: Methuen. In Bertolini, John Anthony ed.

Shaw and Other Playwrights. Sybil Thorndike. London: Haus. Bernard Shaw: A Psychological Study. Shaw and the Last Hundred Years.

London: Constable. Back to Methuselah: A Metabiological Pentateuch. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Evans, Judith The Politics and Plays of Bernard Shaw.

London: McFarland. London: Routledge. The Satirist. Who's Who in the Theatre fourteenth ed. London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons.

London: Penguin. Edwardian Shaw: The Writer and his Age. London: Macmillan. Twentieth-century Theatre and Drama. Trier, Germany: WVT. Kaufmann, R.

Shaw: A Collection of Critical Essays. New York: Devin-Adair. Shaw, Books, and Libraries. Austin: University of Texas. Fabian Socialism and English Politics, — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Michael Collins: A Life. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publications. The Order of Merit. London: Taurus. George Bernard Shaw.

New York: Columbia University Press. Shaw and the Charlatan Genius. London: Michael Joseph. Wisdom and Innocence: A Life of G.

London: Four Square Books. The Origins of the Labour Party. Bernard Shaw: The Ascent of the Superman. Bernard Shaw and the French.

Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Vancouver: UBC Press. London: Dent. John Witts Rosset, Benjamin Shaw of Dublin: The Formative Years.

Eugenics and Politics in Britain, — Groningen, Netherlands: Noordhoff International. George Lansbury. The Story of Shaw's Saint Joan.

Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press. New York: Oxford University Press. Metuchen NJ: Scarecrow Press. The Unexpected Shaw.

Bernard Shaw and Totalitarianism: Longing for Utopia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Elgar O. London: White Lion. Shaw, Bernard A Manifesto Fabian Tract No.

London: Grant Richards. Shaw, Bernard, ed. Fabian Essays in Socialism. London: The Fabian Society. Fabianism and the Empire.

Shaw, Bernard December Current History of the European War. The New York Times. Shaw, G. Bernard 9 April The Complete Plays of Bernard Shaw.

London: Odhams. Everybody's Political What's What. Sixteen Self Sketches. Dan Laurence ed. Collected Letters, Volume 1: — London: Reinhardt.

Stanley Weintraub ed. Shaw: An Autobiography, — London: The Bodley Head. In Crawford, Fred D. Project Gutenberg Australia. Retrieved 13 February Alexander, Doris M.

April Modern Language Notes. The Shaw Review. July American Journal of Public Health. September Spring The Journal of General Education.

January The Sewanee Review. Irish University Review. Shaw Society of America Bulletin : 1—9. November Columbia Library Columns.

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Deutsch: Familie. English: Family. Italiano: Famiglia. Nederlands: Familie en gezin. Walon: Famile. Polski: Rodzina.

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Father sends sons of with a smile. Throughout the s the Fabian Society remained small, its message of moderation frequently unheard among more strident voices.

The second of these, "Transition", details the case for gradualism and permeation, asserting that "the necessity for cautious and gradual change must be obvious to everyone".

The mids marked a turning point in Shaw's life, both personally and professionally: he lost his virginity, had two novels published, and began a career as a critic.

Shaw's sex life has caused much speculation and debate among his biographers, but there is a consensus that the relationship with Patterson was one of his few non-platonic romantic liaisons.

The published novels, neither commercially successful, were his two final efforts in this genre: Cashel Byron's Profession written in —83, and An Unsocial Socialist , begun and finished in The latter was published as a serial in ToDay magazine in , although it did not appear in book form until Cashel Byron appeared in magazine and book form in In and , through the influence of Archer, Shaw was engaged to write book and music criticism for London papers.

When Archer resigned as art critic of The World in he secured the succession for Shaw. Of Shaw's various reviewing activities in the s and s it was as a music critic that he was best known.

In the version of the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , Robert Anderson writes, "Shaw's collected writings on music stand alone in their mastery of English and compulsive readability.

As at The World , he used the by-line "G. By this time he had embarked in earnest on a career as a playwright: "I had rashly taken up the case; and rather than let it collapse I manufactured the evidence".

After using the plot of the aborted collaboration with Archer to complete Widowers' Houses it was staged twice in London, in December , Shaw continued writing plays.

At first he made slow progress; The Philanderer , written in but not published until , had to wait until for a stage production.

Similarly, Mrs Warren's Profession was written five years before publication and nine years before reaching the stage. Shaw's first play to bring him financial success was Arms and the Man , a mock- Ruritanian comedy satirising conventions of love, military honour and class.

Gilbert 's style. The success of Arms and the Man was not immediately replicated. Candida , which presented a young woman making a conventional romantic choice for unconventional reasons, received a single performance in South Shields in ; [77] in a playlet about Napoleon called The Man of Destiny had a single staging at Croydon.

In January , as a Fabian delegate, Shaw attended the Bradford conference which led to the foundation of the Independent Labour Party. To Your Tents, O Israel excoriated the government for ignoring social issues and concentrating solely on Irish Home Rule , a matter Shaw declared of no relevance to socialism.

Webb, who chaired the board of trustees appointed to supervise the legacy, proposed to use most of it to found a school of economics and politics.

Shaw demurred; he thought such a venture was contrary to the specified purpose of the legacy. By the later s Shaw's political activities lessened as he concentrated on making his name as a dramatist.

At least initially, Shaw took to his municipal responsibilities seriously; [n 16] when London government was reformed in and the St Pancras vestry became the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras , he was elected to the newly formed borough council.

In , as a result of overwork, Shaw's health broke down. The previous year she had proposed that she and Shaw should marry.

In the view of the biographer and critic St John Ervine , "their life together was entirely felicitous". They retained a London flat in the Adelphi and later at Whitehall Court.

During the first decade of the twentieth century, Shaw secured a firm reputation as a playwright. In J. Over the next five years they staged fourteen of Shaw's plays.

It was uncongenial to the whole spirit of the neo-Gaelic movement, which is bent on creating a new Ireland after its own ideal, whereas my play is a very uncompromising presentment of the real old Ireland.

Synge 's death in Man and Superman , completed in , was a success both at the Royal Court in and in Robert Loraine 's New York production in the same year.

Among the other Shaw works presented by Vedrenne and Granville-Barker were Major Barbara , depicting the contrasting morality of arms manufacturers and the Salvation Army ; [] The Doctor's Dilemma , a mostly serious piece about professional ethics; [] and Caesar and Cleopatra , Shaw's counterblast to Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra , seen in New York in and in London the following year.

Now prosperous and established, Shaw experimented with unorthodox theatrical forms described by his biographer Stanley Weintraub as "discussion drama" and "serious farce ".

Blanco Posnet was banned on religious grounds by the Lord Chamberlain the official theatre censor in England , and was produced instead in Dublin; it filled the Abbey Theatre to capacity.

Androcles and the Lion , a less heretical study of true and false religious attitudes than Blanco Posnet , ran for eight weeks in September and October Hence arose an urgent demand on the part of the managers of Vienna and Berlin that I should have my plays performed by them first.

There had earlier been a romantic liaison between Shaw and Campbell that caused Charlotte Shaw considerable concern, but by the time of the London premiere it had ended.

His co-star then toured with the piece in the US. In , when the Boer War began, Shaw wished the Fabians to take a neutral stance on what he deemed, like Home Rule , to be a "non-Socialist" issue.

Others, including the future Labour prime minister Ramsay MacDonald , wanted unequivocal opposition, and resigned from the society when it followed Shaw.

As the new century began, Shaw became increasingly disillusioned by the limited impact of the Fabians on national politics. After an eccentric campaign, which Holroyd characterises as "[making] absolutely certain of not getting in", he was duly defeated.

It was Shaw's final foray into electoral politics. Shaw viewed this outcome with scepticism; he had a low opinion of the new prime minister, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman , and saw the Labour members as inconsequential: "I apologise to the Universe for my connection with such a body".

In the years after the election, Shaw felt that the Fabians needed fresh leadership, and saw this in the form of his fellow-writer H.

Wells , who had joined the society in February He later wondered whether the Old Gang should have given way to Wells some years earlier: "God only knows whether the Society had not better have done it".

He became a founding director, publicist, and in due course a contributor, mostly anonymously. Shaw: Common Sense About the War Despite his errant reputation, Shaw's propagandist skills were recognised by the British authorities, and early in he was invited by Field Marshal Haig to visit the Western Front battlefields.

Shaw's 10,word report, which emphasised the human aspects of the soldier's life, was well received, and he became less of a lone voice.

In April he joined the national consensus in welcoming America's entry into the war: "a first class moral asset to the common cause against junkerism ".

Three short plays by Shaw were premiered during the war. The Inca of Perusalem , written in , encountered problems with the censor for burlesquing not only the enemy but the British military command; it was performed in at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre.

Shaw had long supported the principle of Irish Home Rule within the British Empire which he thought should become the British Commonwealth.

After its suppression by British forces, he expressed horror at the summary execution of the rebel leaders, but continued to believe in some form of Anglo-Irish union.

In How to Settle the Irish Question , he envisaged a federal arrangement, with national and imperial parliaments.

In the postwar period, Shaw despaired of the British government's coercive policies towards Ireland, [] and joined his fellow-writers Hilaire Belloc and G.

Chesterton in publicly condemning these actions. I rejoice in his memory, and will not be so disloyal to it as to snivel over his valiant death".

Shaw's first major work to appear after the war was Heartbreak House , written in —17 and performed in It was produced on Broadway in November, and was coolly received; according to The Times : "Mr Shaw on this occasion has more than usual to say and takes twice as long as usual to say it".

Shaw's largest-scale theatrical work was Back to Methuselah , written in —20 and staged in Weintraub describes it as "Shaw's attempt to fend off 'the bottomless pit of an utterly discouraging pessimism'".

He was now sixty-seven, and expected to write no more plays. This mood was short-lived. In Joan of Arc was proclaimed a saint by Pope Benedict XV ; Shaw had long found Joan an interesting historical character, and his view of her veered between "half-witted genius" and someone of "exceptional sanity".

It was enthusiastically received there, [] and at its London premiere the following March. The citation for the literature prize for praised his work as " After Saint Joan , it was five years before Shaw wrote a play.

From , he spent four years writing what he described as his "magnum opus", a political treatise entitled The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism.

He described the League as "a school for the new international statesmanship as against the old Foreign Office diplomacy", but thought that it had not yet become the "Federation of the World".

Shaw returned to the theatre with what he called "a political extravaganza", The Apple Cart , written in late It was, in Ervine's view, unexpectedly popular, taking a conservative, monarchist, anti-democratic line that appealed to contemporary audiences.

During the s Shaw began to lose faith in the idea that society could be changed through Fabian gradualism, and became increasingly fascinated with dictatorial methods.

In he had welcomed Mussolini 's accession to power in Italy, observing that amid the "indiscipline and muddle and Parliamentary deadlock", Mussolini was "the right kind of tyrant".

Shaw's enthusiasm for the Soviet Union dated to the early s when he had hailed Lenin as "the one really interesting statesman in Europe".

Shaw's admiration for Mussolini and Stalin demonstrated his growing belief that dictatorship was the only viable political arrangement.

When the Nazi Party came to power in Germany in January , Shaw described Hitler as "a very remarkable man, a very able man", [] and professed himself proud to be the only writer in England who was "scrupulously polite and just to Hitler".

Shaw's first play of the decade was Too True to be Good , written in and premiered in Boston in February The reception was unenthusiastic.

Brooks Atkinson of The New York Times commenting that Shaw had "yielded to the impulse to write without having a subject", judged the play a "rambling and indifferently tedious conversation".

The correspondent of The New York Herald Tribune said that most of the play was "discourse, unbelievably long lectures" and that although the audience enjoyed the play it was bewildered by it.

During the decade Shaw travelled widely and frequently. Most of his journeys were with Charlotte; she enjoyed voyages on ocean liners, and he found peace to write during the long spells at sea.

He had earlier refused to go to "that awful country, that uncivilized place", "unfit to govern itself Despite his contempt for Hollywood and its aesthetic values, Shaw was enthusiastic about cinema, and in the middle of the decade wrote screenplays for prospective film versions of Pygmalion and Saint Joan.

Shaw was determined that Hollywood should have nothing to do with the film, but was powerless to prevent it from winning one Academy Award "Oscar" ; he described his award for "best-written screenplay" as an insult, coming from such a source.

The first, a fantasy reworking of Shakespeare, made little impression, but the second, a satire on European dictators, attracted more notice, much of it unfavourable.

Towards the end of the decade, both Shaws began to suffer ill health. Charlotte was increasingly incapacitated by Paget's disease of bone , and he developed pernicious anaemia.

His treatment, involving injections of concentrated animal liver, was successful, but this breach of his vegetarian creed distressed him and brought down condemnation from militant vegetarians.

Two touring companies took his plays all round Britain. St John Ervine on Shaw, [3]. Following the outbreak of war on 3 September and the rapid conquest of Poland , Shaw was accused of defeatism when, in a New Statesman article, he declared the war over and demanded a peace conference.

Even there they were not immune from enemy air raids, and stayed on occasion with Nancy Astor at her country house, Cliveden. Her condition deteriorated, and she died in September.

Shaw's final political treatise, Everybody's Political What's What , was published in Holroyd describes this as "a rambling narrative Pascal was given a third opportunity to film Shaw's work with Caesar and Cleopatra It cost three times its original budget and was rated "the biggest financial failure in the history of British cinema".

Shaw thought its lavishness nullified the drama, and he considered the film "a poor imitation of Cecil B. In , the year of Shaw's ninetieth birthday, he accepted the freedom of Dublin and became the first honorary freeman of the borough of St Pancras, London.

He declined, believing that an author's merit could only be determined by the posthumous verdict of history.

It was widely praised; a reviewer in the American Journal of Public Health considered it essential reading for any student of the American criminal justice system.

Shaw continued to write into his nineties. His last plays were Buoyant Billions , his final full-length work; Farfetched Fables a set of six short plays revisiting several of his earlier themes such as evolution; a comic play for puppets, Shakes versus Shav , a ten-minute piece in which Shakespeare and Shaw trade insults; [] and Why She Would Not , which Shaw described as "a little comedy", written in one week shortly before his ninety-fourth birthday.

During his later years, Shaw enjoyed tending the gardens at Shaw's Corner. He died at the age of ninety-four of renal failure precipitated by injuries incurred when falling while pruning a tree.

His ashes, mixed with those of Charlotte, were scattered along footpaths and around the statue of Saint Joan in their garden.

Shaw published a collected edition of his plays in , comprising forty-two works. Including eight earlier plays that he chose to omit from his published works, the total is sixty-two.

Shaw's first three full-length plays dealt with social issues. He later grouped them as "Plays Unpleasant".

Shaw followed the first trilogy with a second, published as "Plays Pleasant". The "Three Plays for Puritans"—comprising The Devil's Disciple , Caesar and Cleopatra and Captain Brassbound's Conversion —all centre on questions of empire and imperialism, a major topic of political discourse in the s.

Shaw's major plays of the first decade of the twentieth century address individual social, political or ethical issues. Man and Superman stands apart from the others in both its subject and its treatment, giving Shaw's interpretation of creative evolution in a combination of drama and associated printed text.

Getting Married and Misalliance —the latter seen by Judith Evans as a companion piece to the former—are both in what Shaw called his "disquisitionary" vein, with the emphasis on discussion of ideas rather than on dramatic events or vivid characterisation.

In the decade from to the aftermath of the First World War Shaw wrote four full-length plays, the third and fourth of which are among his most frequently staged works.

To correct the impression left by the original performers that the play portrayed a romantic relationship between the two main characters Shaw rewrote the ending to make it clear that the heroine will marry another, minor character.

Saint Joan drew widespread praise both for Shaw and for Sybil Thorndike, for whom he wrote the title role and who created the part in Britain. Once again, with On the Rocks and The Simpleton of the Unexpected Isles , a political comedy with a clear plot was followed by an introspective drama.

The first play portrays a British prime minister considering, but finally rejecting, the establishment of a dictatorship; the second is concerned with polygamy and eugenics and ends with the Day of Judgement.

The Millionairess is a farcical depiction of the commercial and social affairs of a successful businesswoman. Geneva lampoons the feebleness of the League of Nations compared with the dictators of Europe.

In Good King Charles's Golden Days , described by Weintraub as a warm, discursive high comedy, also depicts authoritarianism, but less satirically than Geneva.

Ervine writes of Shaw's later work that although it was still "astonishingly vigorous and vivacious" it showed unmistakable signs of his age.

Shaw's collected musical criticism, published in three volumes, runs to more than 2, pages. In Shaw's view, the London theatres of the s presented too many revivals of old plays and not enough new work.

He campaigned against " melodrama , sentimentality , stereotypes and worn-out conventions". In a study of Shaw's work as a theatre critic, E.

West writes that Shaw "ceaselessly compared and contrasted artists in interpretation and in technique". Shaw contributed more than articles as theatre critic for The Saturday Review , in which he assessed more than productions.

He plays with everything: with wit, with philosophy, with drama, with actors and audience, with the whole theatre". Shaw maintained a provocative and frequently self-contradictory attitude to Shakespeare whose name he insisted on spelling "Shakespear".

He has outlasted thousands of abler thinkers, and will outlast a thousand more". Shaw's political and social commentaries were published variously in Fabian tracts, in essays, in two full-length books, in innumerable newspaper and journal articles and in prefaces to his plays.

The majority of Shaw's Fabian tracts were published anonymously, representing the voice of the society rather than of Shaw, although the society's secretary Edward Pease later confirmed Shaw's authorship.

After the turn of the twentieth century, Shaw increasingly propagated his ideas through the medium of his plays.

An early critic, writing in , observed that Shaw's dramas provided "a pleasant means" of proselytising his socialism, adding that "Mr Shaw's views are to be sought especially in the prefaces to his plays".

In this, he denounced the pacifist line espoused by Ramsay MacDonald and other socialist leaders, and proclaimed his readiness to shoot all pacifists rather than cede them power and influence.

The Intelligent Woman's Guide , Shaw's main political treatise of the s, attracted both admiration and criticism.

MacDonald considered it the world's most important book since the Bible; [] Harold Laski thought its arguments outdated and lacking in concern for individual freedoms.

A New York Times report dated 10 December quoted a recent Fabian Society lecture in which Shaw had praised Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin: "[T]hey are trying to get something done, [and] are adopting methods by which it is possible to get something done".

He introduced his theories in The Revolutionist's Handbook , an appendix to Man and Superman , and developed them further during the s in Back to Methuselah.

A Life magazine article observed that Shaw had "always tended to look at people more as a biologist than as an artist".

Shaw's fiction-writing was largely confined to the five unsuccessful novels written in the period — Immaturity is a semi-autobiographical portrayal of mid-Victorian England, Shaw's "own David Copperfield " according to Weintraub.

Gareth Griffith , in a study of Shaw's political thought, sees the novel as an interesting record of conditions, both in society at large and in the nascent socialist movement of the s.

Shaw's only subsequent fiction of any substance was his novella The Adventures of the Black Girl in Her Search for God , written during a visit to South Africa in The eponymous girl, intelligent, inquisitive, and converted to Christianity by insubstantial missionary teaching, sets out to find God, on a journey that after many adventures and encounters, leads her to a secular conclusion.

Shaw was a prolific correspondent throughout his life. His letters, edited by Dan H. Laurence, were published between and Wells and G.

Shaw's diaries for —, edited by Weintraub, were published in two volumes, with a total of 1, pages, in Reviewing them, the Shaw scholar Fred Crawford wrote: "Although the primary interest for Shavians is the material that supplements what we already know about Shaw's life and work, the diaries are also valuable as a historical and sociological document of English life at the end of the Victorian age.

Through his journalism, pamphlets and occasional longer works, Shaw wrote on many subjects. His range of interest and enquiry included vivisection , vegetarianism, religion, language, cinema and photography, [n 33] on all of which he wrote and spoke copiously.

Collections of his writings on these and other subjects were published, mainly after his death, together with volumes of "wit and wisdom" and general journalism.

Despite the many books written about him Holroyd counts 80 by [] Shaw's autobiographical output, apart from his diaries, was relatively slight.

He gave interviews to newspapers—"GBS Confesses", to The Daily Mail in is an example [] —and provided sketches to would-be biographers whose work was rejected by Shaw and never published.

He made it clear to his publishers that this slim book was in no sense a full autobiography. Throughout his lifetime Shaw professed many beliefs, often contradictory.

This inconsistency was partly an intentional provocation—the Spanish scholar-statesman Salvador de Madariaga describes Shaw as "a pole of negative electricity set in a people of positive electricity".

He favoured archaic spellings such as "shew" for "show"; he dropped the "u" in words like "honour" and "favour"; and wherever possible he rejected the apostrophe in contractions such as "won't" or "that's".

Shaw's views on religion and Christianity were less consistent. Having in his youth proclaimed himself an atheist, in middle age he explained this as a reaction against the Old Testament image of a vengeful Jehovah.

By the early twentieth century, he termed himself a "mystic", although Gary Sloan, in an essay on Shaw's beliefs, disputes his credentials as such.

Shaw espoused racial equality, and inter-marriage between people of different races. Political parties are not above exploiting these fears and jealousies.

In Shaw joined in a controversy about vaccination against smallpox. He called vaccination "a peculiarly filthy piece of witchcraft"; [] in his view immunisation campaigns were a cheap and inadequate substitute for a decent programme of housing for the poor, which would, he declared, be the means of eradicating smallpox and other infectious diseases.

Shaw strove throughout his adult life to be referred to as "Bernard Shaw" rather than "George Bernard Shaw", but confused matters by continuing to use his full initials—G.

Bernard Shaw". Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre []. Shaw did not found a school of dramatists as such, but Crawford asserts that today "we recognise [him] as second only to Shakespeare in the British theatrical tradition Crawford lists numerous playwrights whose work owes something to that of Shaw.

Eliot , by no means an admirer of Shaw, admitted that the epilogue of Murder in the Cathedral , in which Becket 's slayers explain their actions to the audience, might have been influenced by Saint Joan.

Shaw's influence crossed the Atlantic at an early stage. Bernard Dukore notes that he was successful as a dramatist in America ten years before achieving comparable success in Britain.

Behrman , who was inspired to write for the theatre after attending a performance of Caesar and Cleopatra : "I thought it would be agreeable to write plays like that".

Assessing Shaw's reputation in a critical study, T. Evans described Shaw as unchallenged in his lifetime and since as the leading English-language dramatist of the twentieth century, and as a master of prose style.

Osborne responded that Shaw "is the most fraudulent, inept writer of Victorian melodramas ever to gull a timid critic or fool a dull public".

In a study, R. Kaufmann suggests that Shaw was a key forerunner—"godfather, if not actually finicky paterfamilias"—of the Theatre of the Absurd.

Writing in The New Statesman in Daniel Janes commented that Shaw's reputation had declined by the time of his th anniversary in but had recovered considerably.

In Janes's view, the many current revivals of Shaw's major works showed the playwright's "almost unlimited relevance to our times".

It produces plays by or written during the lifetime of Shaw as well as some contemporary works. In the s the author Harold Nicolson advised the National Trust not to accept the bequest of Shaw's Corner, predicting that Shaw would be totally forgotten within fifty years.

The original society was founded in London in and survives; it organises meetings and events, and publishes a regular bulletin The Shavian.

A second American organisation, founded in as "The Bernard Shaw Society", remains active as of [update]. More recent societies have been established in Japan and India.

Besides his collected music criticism, Shaw has left a varied musical legacy, not all of it of his choosing. Despite his dislike of having his work adapted for the musical theatre "my plays set themselves to a verbal music of their own" [] two of his plays were turned into musical comedies: Arms and the Man was the basis of The Chocolate Soldier in , with music by Oscar Straus , and Pygmalion was adapted in as My Fair Lady with book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe.

The substance of Shaw's political legacy is uncertain. In Shaw's erstwhile collaborator William Archer, in a letter to the playwright, wrote: "I doubt if there is any case of a man so widely read, heard, seen, and known as yourself, who has produced so little effect on his generation.

She thought he worked "immensely hard" at politics, but essentially, she surmises, it was for fun—"the fun of a brilliant artist".

He was no originator of ideas. He was an insatiable adopter and adapter, an incomparable prestidigitator with the thoughts of the forerunners.

By bending to their service all the faculties of a powerful mind, by inextinguishable wit, and by every artifice of argument, he carried their thoughts as far as they would reach—so far beyond their sources that they came to us with the vitality of the newly created.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bernard Shaw disambiguation. Irish playwright, critic and polemicist, influential in Western theatre.

Shaw in , by Alvin Langdon Coburn. Playwright critic polemicist political activist. Charlotte Payne-Townshend. We desire to record that we saw nowhere evidence of economic slavery, privation, unemployment and cynical despair of betterment.

Everywhere we saw [a] hopeful and enthusiastic working-class The loss of his wife was more profoundly felt than he had ever imagined any loss could be: for he prided himself on a stoical fortitude in all loss and misfortune.

See also: List of works by George Bernard Shaw. Play media. Shaw was a poseur and a puritan; he was similarly a bourgeois and an antibourgeois writer, working for Hearst and posterity; his didacticism is entertaining and his pranks are purposeful; he supports socialism and is tempted by fascism.

Shaw, arguably the most important English-language playwright after Shakespeare, produced an immense oeuvre , of which at least half a dozen plays remain part of the world repertoire.

Academically unfashionable, of limited influence even in areas such as Irish drama and British political theatre where influence might be expected, Shaw's unique and unmistakable plays keep escaping from the safely dated category of period piece to which they have often been consigned.

Stewart, professor of music at Trinity College , denounced him as a charlatan, and succeeded in driving him out. He was also a teetotaller and non-smoker, and was known for his habitual costume of unfashionable woollen clothes, made for him by Jaeger.

Stone of Chicago. Sachs, Bernard Stern and Sally Peters, believe Shaw was a repressed homosexual, and that after Jenny Patterson all his relationships with women, including his marriage, were platonic.

Shaw chose it as his pen name because he thought it seemed dashing: "it sounded like a foreign title and nobody knew what a corno di bassetto was".

Only later did he hear one played, after which he declared it "a wretched instrument [of] peculiar watery melancholy. The devil himself could not make a basset horn sparkle".

He insisted that it was Gilbert who was heartless, while he himself was constructive. His plays would thus have no place in the Irish theatre movement".

Kavanagh added, "an important part of Shaw's plays was political argument, and Yeats detested this quality in dramatic writing.

The former British prime minister David Lloyd George described the Führer in as "unquestionably a great leader".

Lipscomb , who had also worked on adapting Shaw's text. Barrie , who accepted it. Shaw later said he would have refused it if offered, just as he refused the offer of a knighthood.

Tree and then with film producers, to prevent it being returned to stock with a 'happy' ending. This was a battle Shaw was to lose posthumously when the sugar-coated musical comedy adaptation, Lerner and Loewe's My Fair Lady , went on to make more money for the Shaw estate than all his plays put together.

Here we reach a colon; and a pointed pository phrase, in which the accent falls decisively on the relative pronoun, brings us to the first full stop.

Matthews credits Shaw with a successful campaign against the two-hundred-year-old tradition of editing Shakespeare into "acting versions", often designed to give star actors greater prominence, to the detriment of the play as a whole.

Although death duties severely reduced the residuary sum, royalties from My Fair Lady later boosted the income of the estate by several million pounds.

Verein SwissEduc. Broadview Press. Adams, Elsie Bonita Bernard Shaw and the Aesthetes. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. The Rise of the Labour Party — Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge.

The Black and Tans. What is Theatre? New York: Atheneum. In Christopher Innes ed.

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